, 2022-12-18 08:04:04,
Due to British colonial rule, India’s technology status was virtually nil in all sectors. Even after 1947, screwdrivers and spanners were made in the UK and imported. Due to “License Raj” and “Command Economy”, India lagged behind woefully struck in the “Second Industrial Revolution until 1980s whereas Europe and the USA had raced ahead to the “Fourth Industrial Revolution”. India remains backward in the Research and Development (R & D) of Generation (GEN) 4 or 5 or 6 technologies. De facto, India stands at 22nd place in the patents recognised in 2021 at 1,058 and 546 in 2022 till date.
ISRO’s Budget Vs NASA
Certainly, the global ranking in patents mercilessly reflects the poor state of affairs. Insignificant budget allocations in comparison with other nations due to lack of political leaders foresight and will was a constraint. Today, ISRO’s budgetary allocation is only $.1, 831 billions which is insignificant in comparison with NASA (United States) $. 22,629 billions, CNSA (China) $.11,000 billions, ESA (Europe) $. 7,430 billions, CNES (France) $.3, 384 billions and Roscommon (Russia) $.1, 922 billions. Understanding the fundamentals, to include the meaning of technology and the breakthroughs in the “Four Industrial Revolutions”, is considered vital to gain a balanced perspective. The term “technology” is all-encompassing: “the application of scientific knowledge to the practical aims of human life or, to the change and manipulation of…
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